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TA15-195A: Adobe Flash and Microsoft Windows Vulnerabilities

Original release date: July 14, 2015 | Last revised: July 15, 2015

Systems Affected

Microsoft Windows systems with Adobe Flash Player installed.

Overview

Used in conjunction, recently disclosed vulnerabilities in Adobe Flash and Microsoft Windows may allow a remote attacker to execute arbitrary code with system privileges. Since attackers continue to target and find new vulnerabilities in popular, Internet-facing software, updating is not sufficient, and it is important to use exploit mitigation and other defensive techniques.

Description

The following vulnerabilities illustrate the need for ongoing mitigation techniques and prioritization of updates for highly targeted software:

  • Adobe Flash use-after-free and memory corruption vulnerabilities (CVE-2015-5119, CVE-2015-5122, CVE-2015-5123) Adobe Flash Player contains critical vulnerabilities within the ActionScript 3 ByteArray, opaqueBackground and BitmapData classes. Exploitation of these vulnerabilities could allow a remote attacker to execute arbitrary code on a vulnerable system.
  • Microsoft Windows Adobe Type Manager privilege escalation vulnerability (CVE-2015-2387)
    The Adobe Type Manager module contains a memory corruption vulnerability, which can allow an attacker to obtain system privileges on an affected Windows system. The Adobe Type Manager is a Microsoft Windows component present in every version since NT 4.0. The primary impact of exploiting this vulnerability is local privilege escalation.

Vulnerability Chaining

By convincing a user to visit a website or open a file containing specially crafted Flash content, an attacker could combine any one of the three Adobe Flash vulnerabilities with the Microsoft Windows vulnerability to take full control of an affected system.

A common attack vector for exploiting a Flash vulnerability is to entice a user to load Flash content in a web browser, and most web browsers have Flash installed and enabled. A second attack vector for Flash vulnerabilities is through a file (such as an email attachment) that embeds Flash content. Another technique leverages Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) capabilities in Microsoft Office documents to automatically download Flash content from a remote server.

An attacker who is able to execute arbitrary code through the Flash vulnerability could exploit the Adobe Type Manager vulnerability to gain elevated system privileges. The Adobe Type Manager vulnerability allows the attacker to bypass sandbox defenses (such as those found in Adobe Reader and Google Chrome) and low integrity protections (such as Protected Mode Internet Explorer and Protected View for Microsoft Office).

Impact

The Adobe Flash vulnerabilities can allow a remote attacker to execute arbitrary code. Exploitation of the Adobe Type Manager vulnerability could then allow the attacker to execute code with system privileges.

Solution

Since attackers regularly target widely deployed, Internet-accessible software such as Adobe Flash and Microsoft Windows, it is important to prioritize updates for these products to defend against known vulnerabilities.

Since attackers regularly discover new vulnerabilities for which updates do not exist, it is important to enable exploit mitigation and other defensive techniques.

Apply Security Updates

The Adobe Flash vulnerabilities (CVE-2015-5119, CVE-2015-5122, CVE-2015-5123) are addressed in Adobe Security Bulletins APSB15-16 and APSB15-18. Users are encouraged to review the Bulletins and apply the necessary updates.

The Microsoft Windows Adobe Type Manager vulnerability (CVE-2015-2387) is addressed in Microsoft security Bulletin MS15-077. Users are encouraged to review the Bulletin and apply the necessary updates.

Additional information regarding the vulnerabilities can be found in Vulnerability Notes VU#561288, VU#338736, VU#918568, and VU#103336.

Limit Flash Content

Do not run untrusted Flash content. Most web browsers have Flash enabled by default, however, it may be possible to enable click-to-play features. For information see  http://www.howtogeek.com/188059/how-to-enable-click-to-play-plugins-in-every-web-browser/

Use the Microsoft Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit (EMET)

EMET can be used to help prevent exploitation of the Flash vulnerabilities. In particular, Attack Surface Reduction (ASR) can be configured to help restrict Microsoft Office and Internet Explorer from loading the Flash ActiveX control. See the following link for additional information: http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=46366

References

Revision History

  • July 14, 2015: Initial Release

This product is provided subject to this Notification and this Privacy & Use policy.


TA15-120A: Securing End-to-End Communications

Original release date: April 30, 2015

Systems Affected

Networked systems

Overview

Securing end-to-end communications plays an important role in protecting privacy and preventing some forms of man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks. Recently, researchers described a MITM attack used to inject code, causing unsecured web browsers around the world to become unwitting participants in a distributed denial-of-service attack. That same code can be employed to deliver an exploit for a particular vulnerability or to take other arbitrary actions.

Description

A MITM attack occurs when a third party inserts itself between the communications of a client and a server. MITM attacks as a general class are not new. Classic MITM attacks (e.g., ARP Spoofing) focus on redirecting network communications. By definition, network infrastructure under attacker control is vulnerable to MITM. However, as technology evolves, new methods for performing MITM attacks evolve as well.

Currently, there is no single technology or configuration to prevent all MITM attacks. However, increasing the complexity with multiple layers of defense may raise the cost for the attacker. Increasing the attacker’s cost in time, effort, or money can be an effective deterrent to avoiding future network compromise.

Generally, encryption and digital certificates provide an effective safeguard against MITM attacks, assuring both the confidentiality and integrity of communications. As a result, modern MITM attacks have focused on taking advantage of weaknesses in the cryptographic infrastructure (e.g., certificate authorities (CAs), web browser certificate stores) or the encryption algorithms and protocols themselves.

Impact

MITM attacks are critical because of the wide range of potential impacts—these include the exposure of sensitive information, modification of trusted data, and injection of data.

Solution

Employing multiple network and browser protection methods forces an attacker to develop different tactics, techniques, and procedures to circumvent the new security configuration.

US-CERT recommends reviewing the following mitigations to reduce vulnerability to MITM attacks:

Update Transport Layer Security and Secure Socket Layer (TLS/SSL)

US-CERT recommends upgrading TLS to 1.1 or higher and ensuring TLS 1.0 and SSL 1, 2, 3.x are disabled, unless required. TLS 1.0 clients can fall back to version 3.0 of the SSL protocol, which is vulnerable to a padding oracle attack when Cypher-Block Chaining mode is used. This method is commonly referred to as the "POODLE" (Padding Oracle on Downgraded Legacy Encryption) attack. Vulnerable TLS implementations can be updated by applying the patch provided by the vendor. Vendor information is available in the National Vulnerability Database (NVD) entry for CVE-2014-3566 [1] or in CERT Vulnerability Note VU#577193 [2]. See US-CERT TA14-290A [3] for additional information on this vulnerability.

Utilize Certificate Pinning

Certificate pinning [4] is a method of associating X.509 certificate and its public key to a specific CA or root. Typically, certificates are validated by checking a verifiable chain of trust back to a trusted root certificate. Certificate pinning bypasses this validation process and allows the user to trust “this certificate only” or “trust only certificates signed by this certificate.” Please use the following resources to configure your browser for certificate pinning:

Microsoft Certificate Trust

The Microsoft Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit (EMET) 5.2 employs a feature named "Certificate Trust" for SSL/TLS certificate pinning. This feature is intended to detect and stop MITM attacks that leverage Public Key Infrastructure. [5]

To use the Certificate Trust, you must provide a list of websites you want to protect and certificate pinning rules applicable to those websites. In order to do this, work with the Certificate Trust Configuration feature of the graphical application or use the Configuration Wizard to automatically configure EMET with the recommended settings. [6] Also, ensure period defaults are updated through patching.

Browser Certificate Pinning

Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox, among others, perform certificate pinning. They conduct a variation of certificate pinning using the HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS), which pre-loads a specific set of public key hashes into the HSTS configuration, limiting valid certificates to only those with the specified indicated public key. Chrome uses HTTPS pins for most Google properties. It uses whitelisted public keys which include keys from Verisign, Google Internet Authority, Equifax, and GeoTrust. Thus, Chrome will not accept certificates for Google properties from other CAs.

Firefox 32 on desktop and later (Firefox 34 and later on Android) has the ability to use certificate pinning. It also has the ability to enforce built-in pinsets (mapping of public keys) information to domains. Firefox will pin all sites that Chrome already does, pin their own sites after audit and cleansing, and pin other popular sites that are already in good standing. Please visit this site on How to Use Pinning [7] and for more information.

Implement DNS-based Authentication of Named Entities (DANE)

DANE is a protocol that allows certificates (X.509) commonly used for TLS. DANE is bound to DNS which uses Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC). A working group in the Internet Engineering Task Force of DANE developed a new type of DNS record that allows a domain itself to sign statements about which entities are authorized to represent it. [8]

Google Chrome does not use DANE but uses an add-on [9] for support. Mozilla Firefox also uses an add-on [10] to check the existence and validity of DNSSEC.

Use Network Notary Servers

Network notary servers aim to improve the security of communications between computers and websites by enabling browsers to verify website authenticity without relying on CAs. CAs are often considered a security risk because they can be compromised. [11] As a result, browsers can deem fraudulent sites trustworthy and are left vulnerable to MITM attacks.

Each network notary server, or group of servers, is public and can be operated by public/private organizations or individuals. These servers regularly monitor websites and build a history of each site’s certificate data over time. When a browser equipped with a network notary add-on communicates with a website and obtains its certificate information, a user-designated network notary server supplies the browser with historical certificate data for that site. If certificate information provided by the website is inconsistent with the notary’s historical data, a MITM attack could be at play. [12]

References

Revision History

  • April 30, 2015: Initial Release

This product is provided subject to this Notification and this Privacy & Use policy.


TA15-119A: Top 30 Targeted High Risk Vulnerabilities

Original release date: April 29, 2015 | Last revised: May 06, 2015

Systems Affected

Systems running unpatched software from Adobe, Microsoft, Oracle, or OpenSSL. 

Overview

Cyber threat actors continue to exploit unpatched software to conduct attacks against critical infrastructure organizations. As many as 85 percent of targeted attacks are preventable [1].

This Alert provides information on the 30 most commonly exploited vulnerabilities used in these attacks, along with prevention and mitigation recommendations.

It is based on analysis completed by the Canadian Cyber Incident Response Centre (CCIRC) and was developed in collaboration with our partners from Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the Australian Cyber Security Centre.

Description

Unpatched vulnerabilities allow malicious actors entry points into a network. A set of vulnerabilities are consistently targeted in observed attacks.

Impact

A successful network intrusion can have severe impacts, particularly if the compromise becomes public and sensitive information is exposed. Possible impacts include:

  • Temporary or permanent loss of sensitive or proprietary information,
  • Disruption to regular operations,
  • Financial losses relating to restoring systems and files, and
  • Potential harm to an organization’s reputation.

Solution

Maintain up-to-date software

The attack vectors frequently used by malicious actors such as email attachments, compromised “watering hole” websites, and other tools often rely on taking advantage of unpatched vulnerabilities found in widely used software applications. Patching is the process of repairing vulnerabilities found in these software components.

It is necessary for all organizations to establish a strong ongoing patch management process to ensure the proper preventive measures are taken against potential threats. The longer a system remains unpatched, the longer it is vulnerable to being compromised. Once a patch has been publicly released, the underlying vulnerability can be reverse engineered by malicious actors in order to create an exploit. This process has been documented to take anywhere from 24-hours to four days. Timely patching is one of the lowest cost yet most effective steps an organization can take to minimize its exposure to the threats facing its network.

Patch commonly exploited vulnerabilities

Executives should ensure their organization’s information security professionals have patched the following software vulnerabilities. Please see patching information for version specifics.

Microsoft
CVEAffected ProductsPatching Information
CVE-2006-3227​Internet ExplorerMicrosoft Malware Protection Encyclopedia Entry
CVE-2008-2244Office WordMicrosoft Security Bulletin MS08-042
CVE-2009-3129Office
Office for Mac
Open XML File Format Converter for Mac
Office Excel Viewer
Excel
Office Compatibility Pack for Word, Excel, and PowerPoint
Microsoft Security Bulletin MS09-067
​CVE-2009-3674​Internet Explorer​Microsoft Security Bulletin MS09-072
CVE-2010-0806​​Internet ExplorerMicrosoft Security Bulletin MS10-018
CVE-2010-3333Office
Office for Mac
Open XML File Format Converter for Mac
Microsoft Security Bulletin MS10-087
CVE-2011-0101ExcelMicrosoft Security Bulletin MS11-021
CVE-2012-0158Office
SQL Server
BizTalk Server
Commerce Server
Visual FoxPro
Visual Basic
Microsoft Security Bulletin MS12-027
CVE-2012-1856Office
SQL Server
Commerce Server
Host Integration Server
Visual FoxPro Visual Basic
Microsoft Security Bulletin MS12-060
​CVE-2012-4792​Internet Explorer​Microsoft Security Bulletin MS13-008
CVE-2013-0074​Silverlight and Developer RuntimeMicrosoft Security Bulletin MS13-022
CVE-2013-1347​Internet ExplorerMicrosoft Security Bulletin MS13-038
CVE-2014-0322​​​Internet ExplorerMicrosoft Security Bulletin MS14-012
CVE-2014-1761Microsoft Word
Office Word Viewer
Office Compatibility Pack
Office for Mac
Word Automation Services on SharePoint Server
Office Web Apps
Office Web Apps Server
Microsoft Security Bulletin MS14-017
​CVE-2014-1776​Internet ExplorerMicrosoft Security Bulletin MS14-021
CVE-2014-4114​WindowsMicrosoft Security Bulletin MS14-060
Oracle
CVEAffected ProductsPatching Information
CVE-2012-1723Java Development Kit, SDK, and JREOracle Java SE Critical Patch Update Advisory - June 2012
CVE-2013-2465Java Development Kit and JREOracle Java SE Critical Patch Update Advisory - June 2013
Adobe
CVEAffected ProductsPatching Information
​CVE-2009-3953Reader Acrobat ​Adobe Security Bulletin APSB10-02​
​CVE-2010-0188​Reader AcrobatAdobe Security Bulletin APSB10-07
CVE-2010-2883Reader Acrobat ​Adobe Security Bulletin APSB10-21
CVE-2011-0611​Flash Player
AIR
Reader
Acrobat
Adobe Security Bulletin APSB11-07
Adobe Security Bulletin APSB11-08​
​CVE-2011-2462Reader Acrobat ​Adobe Security Bulletin APSB11-30
​CVE-2013-0625ColdFusion​Adobe Security Bulletin APSB13-03
CVE-2013-0632​ColdFusionAdobe Security Bulletin APSB13-03
​CVE-2013-2729​Reader AcrobatAdobe Security Bulletin APSB13-15
​CVE-2013-3336​ColdFusionAdobe Security Bulletin APSB13-13
CVE-2013-5326​ColdFusionAdobe Security Bulletin APSB13-27
CVE-2014-0564Flash Player
AIR
AIR SDK & Compiler
Adobe Security Bulletin APSB14-22
OpenSSL
CVEAffected ProductsPatching Information
CVE-2014-0160OpenSSLCERT Vulnerability Note VU#720951

 

Implement the following four mitigation strategies.

As part of a comprehensive security strategy, network administrators should implement the following four mitigation strategies, which can help prevent targeted cyber attacks.

RankingMitigation StrategyRationale
1Use application whitelisting to help prevent malicious software and unapproved programs from running.Application whitelisting is one of the best security strategies as it allows only specified programs to run, while blocking all others, including malicious software.
2Patch applications such as Java, PDF viewers, Flash, web browsers and Microsoft Office.Vulnerable applications and operating systems are the target of most attacks. Ensuring these are patched with the latest updates greatly reduces the number of exploitable entry points available to an attacker.
3Patch operating system vulnerabilities.
4Restrict administrative privileges to operating systems and applications based on user duties.Restricting these privileges may prevent malware from running or limit its capability to spread through the network.

It is recommended that users review US-CERT Security Tip (ST13-003) and CCIRC’s Mitigation Guidelines for Advanced Persistent Threats for additional background information and to assist in the detection of, response to, and recovery from malicious activity linked to advance persistent threats [2, 3].

 

References

Revision History

  • April 29, 2015: Initial release

This product is provided subject to this Notification and this Privacy & Use policy.


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